Indiana University Press (209)
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12 The Dinner Debate with Graham Claytor

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 12

The Dinner Debate with Graham Claytor

ONE FIRST–CLASS PASSAGE

PENN CENTRAL WAS NOT THE ONLY TROUBLED RAILROAD IN the Northeast. Smaller lines there and in the Midwest were ill as well. By late 1972, seven of the Northeast’s eleven largest railroads were in bankruptcy, and two were tottering so badly their creditors were demanding that they be liquidated. They were suffering because trucks were draining their traffic base and they were burdened by too many routes. Worse yet, the regulators in Washington were indifferent when the roads pled to abandon excess tracks and money-losing services or to offset higher costs by raising their rates.

One night I was having dinner in New York with Graham Claytor and several of his top officers. As usual we began tossing ideas back and forth. This evening, as we began our appetizers, Claytor launched into a long spiel about the bankruptcy problem. As he went on laying out the dilemma that faced the industry, his concern became increasingly visible, for some legislators were even talking of nationalizing all the railroads, a prospect that disturbed both of us.

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7 The Locomotive That Sashayed

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 7

The Locomotive That Sashayed

ONE FIRST–CLASS PASSAGE

TO BE SUCCESSFUL, THE N&W-CHESSIE MERGER WOULD HAVE to depend on a new tool, the computer. Until the mid-1960s most railroads used their computer systems almost solely to manage their finances. Although the railroads had been leaders in technological change in the 1800s, most modern railroaders were slow to adapt. One exception was the Southern Railway’s Bill Brosnan. He introduced railroad operations to computers, taking the Southern into a new era.

The first computer I had ever seen had stood in a basement room in one our buildings at Fort Devens. Compared with the machines NSA operates today, that contraption was inconsequential, yet I had been immensely impressed. Now I was about to meet computers far more sophisticated, machines that would do as much to transform railroad operations as early computers had done for code breaking.

Not long after I began to increase our coverage of railroads, our publisher, Tennant Bryan, returned from a directors meeting of the Southern Railway System. For years a representative of Richmond Newspapers had sat on the Southern’s board. Bryan’s predecessor had been Dr. Douglas Southall Freeman, the Pulitzer Prize–winning Civil War historian, who had edited the News-Leader. At their gathering, Brosnan had shown his directors a new computer system, and on his return to Richmond Bryan suggested to my boss, John Leard, that I go down to Atlanta and see it.

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10 “The Greatest Thing Since Sex and Watermelon”

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 10

“The Greatest Thing Since Sex & Watermelon”

ONE FIRST–CLASS PASSAGE

ONCE THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION AND THE Interstate Commerce Commission had verified my Penn Central exposé, I was able to take on Gil Burck’s mantle as the magazine’s transportation specialist, and I went at it with exultation. The first piece was about United Air Lines. Six months after Penn Central’s fall, recognizing they should avoid the mistakes of the railroad’s board, United’s directors had staged a coup, replacing the company’s president with the man who ran a hotel chain the airline owned—Edward E. Carlson, who became one of the best chief executives in the air transport industry. Eddie, who started as a bellhop, turned around United in a year.

It was the makings of a magnificent story, and adding to it, I was able to ferret out how the directors had come to this wrenching decision. It was a drama from inside the boardroom, a place where reporters never ventured. The story caused a sensation, stirring the directors of Pan American World Airways to oust their CEO and causing other publications to begin producing boardroom dramas.

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14 “Who Knows Hays Watkins?”

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 14

“Who Knows Hays Watkins?”

ONE FIRST-CLASS PASSAGE

ALL INDUSTRIES AT ONE TIME OR ANOTHER ARE VICTIMS OF changes in technology, and sometimes it can be fatal. Some of my wife’s ancestors were wagon makers. They were said to be one of the South’s largest producers of wagons, turning out 15,000 a year, and, when the public began buying automobiles and trucks, the men running the company thought them a passing fad. Despite their prediction, the market for cars and trucks took off, and in the 1940s Nissen wagons finally succumbed to the new competition.

Newspapers, magazines, and railroads were created by new technology and could die by the same hand. The train had replaced the canal boat and the stagecoach, but by the 1970s it was losing to trucks, automobiles, and airliners. In fact, when the Post Office shut down its mail cars and moved all its intercity mail to trucks and airliners, the railroads’ traditional businesses of express packages and less-than-carload freight were shifting to the highways, and once again it was made possible by another innovation, the interstate highway system.

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18 J. B. Hunt Takes a Ride on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 18

J. B. Hunt Takes a Ride on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe

ONE FIRST–CLASS PASSAGE

WHILE A FEW PEOPLE LIKE SWEENEY AND BILL JOHNSON wanted out of the business, other railroaders were struggling to decrypt the mysteries of the free market. Most still did not understand the key to the industry’s future—the intermodal business—and some did not want to. Many men like CSX’s Jim Hagen had always recognized its potential, if it could be priced high enough to bring in a reasonable profit.

Although intermodal traffic, especially trips combining transportation modes like boats and trains, had been in existence since the infancy of the railroads, mixing rail service with trucking was a late bloomer. Tractor-trailers, or semis, had been traveling America’s highways since the 1920s, and some, delivering new cars to dealers, had been operating since the invention of the automobile, two decades before that. Railroads had experimented with piggyback, or intermodal, as early as the 1930s. Yet, it was not until 1955 that the first batch of highway trailers was placed on regularly scheduled intermodal trains. The Pennsylvania Railroad opened the service with dedicated trains, one each way, each day, between New York and Chicago. The business grew, and other railroads expanded their own services.

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Solution Tree Press (19)
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Medium 9781934009628

Chapter 1: The Challenges Facing English Language Learners and Their Teachers

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

1

The Challenges Facing English Language Learners and Their Teachers

Every student should have equitable and optimal opportunities to learn mathematics free from bias—intentional or unintentional—based on race, gender, socioeconomic status, or language. In order to close the achievement gap, all students need the opportunity to learn challenging mathematics from a well-qualified teacher who will make connections to the background, needs, and cultures of all learners.

—National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

Reflection 1.1

Choose one or more of the following questions, and respond in the margin. Write from your heart, your beliefs, and your past experience. Compare your answers to those on page 131.

•   Why do some students transition to English very quickly while others attend English-speaking schools for many years without acquiring academic English?

•   How can we make grade-level mathematics accessible to all students regardless of language proficiency?

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Chapter 5: Applying Strategies for ELLs: A 5E Lesson

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

5

Applying Strategies for ELLs: A 5E Lesson

Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous.

—Confucius

In the first four chapters, we examined the needs of English language learners and how to support them in the affective, linguistic, and cognitive domains. The question now arises of how to incorporate the tools, practices, and strategies into practical classroom use. Perhaps you are asking yourself:

•   What does a lesson look like that meets the needs of my English language learners?

•   How can I meet the needs of my English language learners and still meet the needs of other students in my classroom?

Echevarria, Vogt, and Short (2004) identify the critical instructional features necessary for the academic and language development of English language learners.

Lesson preparation: Planning should result in lessons that enable students to make connections between their knowledge and experiences and the new information being taught.

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Appendix D: Reproducibles for Lesson on Three-Dimensional Figures

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

Appendix D

Reproducibles for Lesson on Three-Dimensional Figures

Who Am I?

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Cooperative Grouping Guide Cards

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Vocabulary Organizer

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Three-Dimensional Geometric Figures Cards

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Three-Dimensional Geometric Figures

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

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7 - Think Big, Start Small

Gayle Gregory Solution Tree Press ePub

Think Big, Start Small

Think big, start small, act now.

—Barnabas Suebu

Good teachers take all they know about the brain, researched best practices, and student differences and creatively plan multiple opportunities for students to be successful. In addition, educators must acknowledge the differences in learners of the 21st century. With the daily use of technology, students’ brains are wiring in new and unique ways. By considering some of the major differences, we may be able to understand how this generation is changing how school must be done. In his book Grown Up Digital, Don Tapscott (2009) summarizes eight differentiating characteristics of our students:

1. They want freedom in everything they do, from freedom of choice to freedom of expression.

2. They love to customize, personalize.

3. They are the new scrutinizers.

4. They look for corporate integrity and openness when deciding what to buy and where to work.

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Chapter 2: Providing Affective Supports for English Language Learners

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

2

Providing Affective Supports for English Language Learners

There are hundreds of languages in the world, but a smile speaks them all.

—Anonymous

Reflection 2.1

Imagine you are going to be an exchange student in a country where you do not know the language. What positive classroom aspects could motivate you to learn the language relatively quickly? Compare your answers to those on page 133.

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000) has articulated the importance of a positive classroom climate in learning mathematics. The classroom environment communicates subtle messages about what is valued in learning and doing mathematics and encourages students to participate in the learning and doing of mathematics. The English language learner’s first impression of the classroom and the teacher sets the tone for learning and success. Putting yourself in the place of the student and envisioning what would make you feel welcome will put you on the right path toward creating a positive classroom climate that meets the needs of English language learners in learning mathematics.

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University Of North Texas Press (30)
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“Driving Across Texas at Thirty-Five Miles Per Hour”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

DRIVING ACROSS TEXAS AT THIRTY-FIVE

MILES PER HOUR by Jean Granberry Schnitz

Progress. That’s what they call it. True, travel is easier and faster than it was when I was a child, but trips across Texas are not what they were during the 1930s and 1940s. Expressways and interstate highways now speed travelers to their destinations. The wonderful little towns, the cities full of amazing sights, the courthouses, many with matching small-scale jails—all are by-passed by modern transportation systems. Gone are stop lights and bumpy roads, but not hot, dusty afternoons and freezing mornings. We just don’t notice the outside weather as much now that the windows are tightly closed!

Imagine having no radio or tape deck or CD player or television to bombard the vehicle with sound! Modern children cannot imagine dashing across Texas at thirty-five miles an hour—or less.

How long would a mere six-hundred-mile trip take at that speed?

It would require seventeen hours of driving, plus time for meals, fuel, and other stops. Seventeen hours strapped into a child safety seat would be pure torture! Despite the long hours, I wouldn’t take anything for the experiences my family had during such trips.

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“Walter Henry Burton’s Ride—Bell County to Juarez, Mexico in 1888”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

WALTER HENRY BURTON’S RIDE—BELL

COUNTY TO JUAREZ, MEXICO IN 1888 by James Burton Kelly

Walter Henry Burton was the first of seven sons born to John

Henry Martin Burton Jr. and Cynthia Priscilla Pass Burton. He was my maternal grandfather. He stood about 5′ 7″ tall and probably weighed 150 pounds—boots, hat, longjohns and all. But to me, he was a giant of a man, from my first recollection of him until the day he was buried in the Cleburne cemetery following a fatal automobile accident at age 76.

I could and hopefully will write a lot more about his life and the stories he told me when I was a young boy and spent all of my summers and holidays on the family farm and ranch six miles southwest of Cleburne in Johnson County, Texas. This story is about his two trips horseback from Bell County, Texas, to Juarez,

Mexico, to visit and work for his maternal grandfather Lafayette

Pass in 1888.

Walter Burton’s children called him “Dad” and his grandchildren called him Daddy Burton. When I was very young, Daddy

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“Farm and Ranch Entrances in West Texas”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

FARM AND RANCH ENTRANCES

IN WEST TEXAS by Mary Harris

In Elmer Kelton’s novel The Man Who Rode Midnight, the grandson of the old-time rancher and protagonist Wes Hendrix thinks about city folks moving to the country and pretending that they are ranchers. Kelton writes:

Along the road, especially near to town, Jim Ed saw perhaps twenty fancy gateways of stone and steel and brick, bearing names like Angora Acres and

Rancho Restful and The Poor Farm. He looked twice at a sign that declared Heavenly Days Ranch.

These were the harbingers of an urban invasion, ten- and twenty- and fifty-acre ranchettes, homesites for city folk who wanted to play at the rustic life without suffering its discomforts.1

The novelist’s references to “fancy gateways,” and what he later refers to as an “entrance gate” or a “decorative arch,” are called in this paper “decorative entrances.” These decorative entrances are those highway and county road structures that announce to the passer that here is access to a Charolais ranch or a cotton farm, or as Kelton writes, smaller places where the people want “to play at the rustic life.”2

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“Eating Up Route 66: Foodways of Motorists Crossing the Texas Panhandle”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

EATING UP ROUTE 66: FOODWAYS

OF MOTORISTS CROSSING

THE TEXAS PANHANDLE by T. Lindsay Baker

From the mid-1920s to the mid-1960s, U.S. Highway 66 served as a major thoroughfare for motorists traveling between the Midwest and the Pacific coast. In the mid-1920s, the U.S. Bureau of

Roads began designating highways in the forty-eight states with identifying numbers. In 1926, the agency gave number 66 to a combination of roads that started at Chicago and passed through

St. Louis, Oklahoma City, Amarillo, and Albuquerque to reach Los

Angeles, over 2,400 miles away. In Texas the roads that became

Route 66 were dirt tracks parallel to the Rock Island Railroad across the Panhandle.

Few highways in America gave travelers such geographical and cultural diversity as Route 66. From the cornfields of Illinois, drivers went through the Ozarks in Missouri before entering the oil fields and red hills of Oklahoma. They then crossed the treeless plains in the Texas Panhandle before driving through the deserts and Indian country of New Mexico and Arizona. In their unairconditioned cars they proceeded through the Mojave Desert, passed by orange groves in southern California, and reached the

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3. Work Experiences

Jeffrey Marcos Garcilazo University of North Texas Press PDF

Jeffrey Marcos Garcilazo various duties that trackmen performed: unloading rails, ties and tamping the roadbed. And, of course, it reflects the physical exhaustion and hard-core vernacular that often accompanied heavy masculine work. Indeed, the most salient issue emerging from this corrido is the collective experience of Mexican trackmen in cooperation with one another in one of the largest employment sectors in the country. And as such, these workers derived overwhelmingly from the Mexican working-class. According to the late Ernesto Galarza,

“as a group [the Mexican immigrant worker] they represent the most authentic transplant of Mexican working-class culture in the

United States.”2

This chapter examines the work experiences of Mexican track workers (primarily men) based upon both the attitudes of railroad managers about Mexicans and Mexican attitudes about their backbreaking work on el traque. It describes what they did off the job, i.e., during lunch, evenings, weekends, holidays, as well as how they coped during down-times, unemployment. Specifically this chapter discusses the concept of common labor, working conditions, the effects of Americanization and Taylorism. Finally, it reconstructs the recreational and casual activities of Mexican track workers. In so doing, this chapter shows how traqueros shaped the world of track work within the context and limitations of industrial capitalism through their bonds and relationships with one another as well as with the institution of the railroad.

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